I did not expect that I still don’t have my new passport. I need to visit Delhi, India immediately. I am also wondering how much it will it be, and what are the required identification documents for it. Lastly, I need to be aware if there is a difference if I go to Ladakh.
Unfortunately, you cannot obtain a visa when you arrive in the country, and you cannot also go to Delhi, India without a visa.
You can visit the Consulate of India in San Francisco, Houston, Chicago, or New York so that you can apply in person for it. If you arrive early in any India Consulates in the United States, you can typically leave the same day once you already have your visa. You can also apply this instruction when you apply for one at the Indian Embassy in Washington.
However, if you cannot go personally to the India Embassy or any of the India Consulates, you have to send your new passport and your visa application through the mail. One of my contacts informed me that visa application via mail normally takes within ten business days before you obtain your passport and visa affixed to it. This case will only apply to you once you have your new passport. When you send your request through the mail, you have to provide at least two identical pictures, and you must also download and fill out an application form.
If you are a citizen of the United States and applying one in the Embassy of India or any of the India Consulates in the United States, cash is the only way of for you to pay for any fee related to your visa application.
Bottom line: What you need is to count ten days from the time or day you have your passport returned to you and after you send it again until the day you receive it along with your visa inside. You must be okay depending on the date of your departure, but it would be better if you do it the soonest time possible. There is certainly no possibility that you can obtain your visa when you arrive. There is a separate process when you are applying for it in person at a consulate or embassy.
If you want to ask more questions, you can call the Embassy of India in Washington D.C. at (202) 939-9865 or send your e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org.